Many of us take a lot of photographs of their family inside their home or apartment. With regular flash, you have noticed a hard shadow just behind your subject. Using a simple bounce flash aimed at the ceiling can help to soften the shadows. You will have to find a Flash that has at least a hinge that allows you to aim the flash head up towards the ceiling. The idea is to spread light out over a broader area, and have reflect on your subject as a less concentrated light source. This will give a softer light, and will produce a more subdued shadow. It is best used when your subject is within a few feet from a wall as their background. Very typical of a home or apartment.
Now few samples to show the differences.
I used a small flash that only had a bounce control, no swivel. (which is good when you hold the camera in “Portrait” orientation). I aim the flash head at about a 70* angle up. NOT 90*. I also put the flash in full manual mode (it was not a TTL model). My camera (E-M5) was also on Manual, since I used a manual flash. (for the bounce flash photos)
With a TTL bounce flash, life is easier. But, TTL flash with can cost from $100 to $500 depending on the MAKE and MODEL..
A few more to wind this article up.